Refrigeration and air-conditioning


                This Course provides a simple understanding of Refrigeration and Air-conditioning fundamentals. Ideally suited to those with a little or no knowledge of the subject. The course consists of different refrigeration cycles and understanding of psychrometry and psychrometric processes used for the purpose of air-conditioning. Further, the comfort air-conditioning and indoor environment health are also addressed in this course.

Course Objective: The main objective of this course is to provide an insight into how thermodynamic principles are applied in the air conditioning and refrigeration.


This course essentially deals with the very high speed fluid flows, mainly the flows in the regime of supersonic speed. Hence understanding of this flow regime and its characteristic signatures is the objective of this course.

Theoretical understanding of this subject along with the experimental introduction is very useful for advanced studies like missile and reentry aerodynamics and hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Hence, inorder to build the basic platform, this course starts with basic governing equations of the fluid flows.

Modifications of these equations for simplified studies of one dimensional flow and certain special cases like Rayleigh flow and Fanno flow are introduced afterwards. One more example of one dimensional flow as normal shock wave follows the same chapter.

Concept of oblique shock as a consequence of two dimensional flows along with various conditions is the part of next chapter. Expansion of the supersonic flow and basic governing equations are also part of the two dimensional flows.

Quasi-one dimensional flow and understanding of supersonic nozzle and diffuser follows this. Unsteady flows and method of characteristics with its application ends the theoretical understanding in the course. However this course ends with the introduction to various experimental facilities of this flow regime.

To provide basic knowledge on the design of 

  • gears.
  • bearings.
  • IC engine components.
  • pressure vessels.


Manufacturing processes can be broadly divided into two groups and they are primary manufacturing processes and secondary manufacturing processes. The former ones provide basic shape and size to the material as per designer’s requirement. Casting, forming, powder metallurgy are such processes to name a few. Secondary manufacturing processes provide the final shape and size with tighter control on dimension, surface characteristics etc. Material removal processes are mainly the secondary manufacturing processes.

Material removal processes once again can be divided into mainly two groups and they are “Conventional Machining Processes” and “Non-Traditional Manufacturing Processes”.

Examples of conventional machining processes are turning, boring, milling, shaping, broaching, slotting, grinding etc. Similarly, Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM), Ultrasonic Machining (USM), Water Jet and Abrasive Water Jet Machining (WJM and AWJM), Electro- discharge Machining (EDM) are some of the Non Traditional Machining (NTM) Processes.